Is not logic a set of principles that undergirds

*all*language, all reasoning, and all relationships between objects and entities? If this is the case, then I ask if mathematics undergirds all reasoning, all language, and all relationships between all realities -- including relationships between thoughts and ideas. It seems evident to me that formal symbolic language is but a tiny subset of logic and that mathematics is also a subset of the "universal" logic that undergirds all reality.

I wish for replies to my question: Is mathematics a subset of logic? If not, how can the claim that all logical reasoning is a branch of mathematics be defended? By the way, I just looked up "logic" in my

*The American Heritage Dictionary*and found several definitions. I want to list two of the definitions. Definition 2c.: "The formal guiding principles of a discipline, school, or science." Def. 4: "The relationship between elements and between an element and the whole in a set of objects, individuals, principles or events...."

How could mathematics be properly claimed to describe or define every set of elements and relationships between elements, including moral principles, an intensity of desire, etc.? It appears to me evident that mathematics

*cannot*subsume all logical principles or all of logical reasoning. And is not logic included in every principle of logical reasoning?

Does anyone else have thoughts on this issue? I've given much thought to it over several decades, and I can hardly believe that it is proper to declare that logic (including all the definitions of logic) is a subset of mathematics. As I see it, the converse is the case.